Thursday, March 16, 2023

04 Paintings, PORTRAIT OF A LADY, The Islamic Pirate Queen - Sayyida al-Hurra, with Footnotes. #172

Jean-Étienne Liotard
The Islamic Pirate Queen - Sayyida al-Hurra
Or Laura Tarsi, 'A Grecian Lady'
Gouache on ivory
height: 10.2 cm (4 in); width: 8.3 cm (3.2 in)
Private collection

Jean-Étienne Liotard (22 December 1702 – 12 June 1789) was a Swiss painter, art connoisseur and dealer. He is best known for his portraits in pastel, and for the works from his stay in Turkey. A Huguenot of French origin and citizen of the Republic of Geneva, he was born and died in Geneva, but spent most of his career in stays in the capitals of Europe, where his portraits were much in demand. He worked in Rome, Istanbul, Paris, Vienna, London and other cities.

Liotard began his studies under Professors Daniel Gardelle and Petitot, whose enamels and miniatures he copied with considerable skill.

He went to Paris in 1725, studying under Jean-Baptiste Massé [fr] and François Lemoyne, on whose recommendation he was taken to Naples. In 1735 he was in Rome, painting the portraits of Pope Clement XII and several cardinals. In 1738 he accompanied Lord Duncannon to Constantinople, where he worked for the next four years.

He went to Vienna in 1742 to paint the portraits of the Imperial family.

In 1762 he painted portraits in Vienna. Another visit to England followed in 1772, and in the next two years his name figures among the Royal Academy exhibitors. He returned to his native town in 1776. He died at Geneva in 1789. More on Jean-Étienne Liotard

Sayyida al Hurra (1485 – 14 July 1561), was a queen of Tétouan in 1515–1542 and a pirate queen in the early 16th century. She is considered to be "one of the most important female figures of the Islamic West in the modern age".

The life of Sayyida al Hurra can be understood within geopolitical and religious contexts. The Ottomans had just captured Constantinople in 1453 marking the end of the Roman Empire. She was two years old when the Portuguese started their colonial conquest by capturing some ports at the western coast of Morocco starting the year 1487. 

Francisco Pradilla y Ortiz  (1848–1921)
The Capitulation of Granada, c. 1882
Muhammad XII of Granada, Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon
Oil on canvas
Height: 330 cm (10.8 ft); Width: 550 cm (18 ft)
Palace of the Senate

Francisco Pradilla Ortiz (24 July 1848 – 1 November 1921) was a prolific Spanish painter famous for creating historical scenes.

He was born in Villanueva de Gállego, in Zaragoza Province and began his studies in Zaragoza. He then transferred to the Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando and, later, the "Academia de Acuarelistas" (Academy of Watercolorists) in Madrid.

In 1873, he became one of the first students chosen to study at the new Spanish Academy in Rome. From there he had opportunities to travel to France and Venice and studied the old masters.

In 1881 he became the Director of the Spanish Fine Arts Academy in Rome, but resigned from this post after two years. He traveled, mostly in Italy, portraying local themes and people. In 1897 he returned to Madrid as the director of the Museo del Prado. He held this position only briefly and then focused again on painting. More on Francisco Pradilla Ortiz

Manuel Gómez-Moreno González, (1834–1918)
Departure of the Boabdil family from the Alhambra, c. 1880
Oil on canvas
Height: 250.5 cm; Width: 371 cm
Granada Museum of Fine Arts

Manuel Gómez-Moreno González (26 June 1834 – 20 December 1918) was a Spanish painter, amateur archaeologist and professor.

Upon discovering that he had a talent for art, he was enrolled at the "Escuela de Bellas Artes" and, seeing how quickly he learned, he was transferred to the Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando in Madrid, where he studied from 1857 to 1860.

Following his return to Granada, he found himself in economic difficulties. This was eased somewhat after winning prizes in 1861 and 1862 which resulted in several commissions.

In 1867, he obtained a position as a professor of drawing at the "Colegio de San Bartolomé y Santiago". He also taught classes at the "Escuela de Artes y Oficios del Asilo de San José" and, until 1888, he held the chair of decorative composition at the "Escuela de Bellas Artes". In the evenings, he gave private lessons for free.

Meanwhile, he continued to paint prolifically; winning a gold medal at the Exposición Granadina in 1876. Two years later, the provincial government awarded him a stipend to study in Rome, where he lived until 1880 with his wife and son. 

Since he was a young boy, he was also interested in investigating the history of Granada. 

In 1892, he began publishing the Guía de Granada. He also published numerous historical studies in pamphlets and magazines; notably on Diego de Siloé

His works and his advice were influential during the creation of the Archaeological Museum of Granada. In 1904, he was elected President of the "Patronato de la Alhambra y el Generalife". More on Manuel Gómez-Moreno González

A few years later, Granada was falling into the hands of the Catholic Monarchs Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon and with that, forced conversions of Muslims in Spain followed.

Sayyida al Hurra, (1485-1561)
I have no further description of this artwork at this time

Allied with the Turkish corsair Barbarossa of Algiers, al Hurra controlled the western Mediterranean Sea while Barbarossa controlled the eastern. She was also prefect of Tétouan. In 1515, she became the last person in Islamic history to legitimately hold the title of al Hurra (Queen) following the death of her husband, who ruled Tétouan. She later married the Berber King of Morocco, Ahmed al-Wattasi, but refused to leave Tétouan to do so. This marriage marks the only time in Moroccan history a king married away from the capital, Fez.

After she had ruled as queen for 30 years, her son-in-law Muhammad al-Hassan al-Mandri overthrew her in October 1542. According to the Yemen Times, "she was stripped of her property and power". Accepting her fate, she retired to Chefchaouen, where she lived nearly 20 years more. More on Sayyida al Hurra

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